In 1914, as the world prepared for war, thousands of men enlisted in Scotland. But thousands more Scots, and those of Scottish descent, joined up across the world. As the optimism of 1914 gave way to the grim reality of years of conflict, the human cost of fighting the First World War became a foundation of national consciousness - for Canada at Vimy Ridge, for Australia and New Zealand at Gallipoli, for South Africa at Delville Wood. Based on the exhibition at the National Museum of Scotland (11 July to 12 October 2014) the book explores how military service was related to other expressions of Scottish identity. And, following the structure of the exhibition, personal story vignettes, based on National Museum Scotland and on international collections, will reinforce the main themes of migration, multiple identity and loss.